for

 

  All three parts of a for statement are optional - meaning the initialization, the logical test, and the update.   Any part or parts can be omitted.  i.e. This code with no parts will loop forever: 

 

for( ; ; ) do something;

 

  You must provide one of the following to end the loop if you leave out the optional logical test in the middle:

 

1 - a break statement, or

2 - a call to System.exit(..), or

3 - throw an exception.

 

  You must increment the test variable yourself if you choose to leave out the update expression at the end.  i.e.

 

 for ( int x = 0;  x < 5; ) {                                                // note the missing update expression

     // do something  here

     x += 1;                                                                        // update the variable manually

     System.out.println( "Loop counter is "  +  x );    // x is still in scope here so it can be referenced

 }

 

  Multiple initialization and update expressions are allowed. 

These must be separated by commas, must be all of the same type, and must not repeat the type.  i.e.

 

                        for ( int x = 0, y = 0, z = 0;  x < 5;  x++, y++, z++ )    initializes and updates three int variables

 

  You cannot provide the declaration of a variable outside the for expression and then perform its creation inside the expression.  i.e.

 

int y; 

for ( int x = 0, y = 0;  x < 5;  x++ )    will not compile because of y being declared outside.

 

  You cannot reference initialization variables outside their for loop.

The scope of initialization variables ends at the end of the loop code.   i.e. 

The last statement's reference to x here will not compile:

 

for ( int x = 0;  x < 5;  x++ )  {

   // do things in loop 

}

System.out.print( "Loop counter is "  +  x );            // x is being referenced out of its scope here